Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

California State University San Bernardino; Department of Biology


BIOLOGY 622 – Winter 2014


Anatomy and Phylogenetic Relationships of Basal Amniotes


Thursday 10:00-11:50 P.M.


Course Schedule and Reading Assignments

Refer to the schedule below for topics, activities, and reading assignments. The major groups are taken from the phylogeny below.  This phylogeny is the current best available hypothesis of relationships of basal amniotes and their closest sister-taxa.





Topic/Activity - Group(s) Covered, Presenting Class Member,

Initial Reading Assignments







Class Logistics; Introduction; Course Scope.  Diadectomorpha (Sumida)

Berman et al. (1992); Sumida et al. (1992)



Synapsida - Caseosauria (Jung)

Maddin et al. (2008); Reisz et al. (2009)



SynapsidaEupelycosauria (Fierros and Neherin)

Reisz et al. (1992); Berman et al. (1995); Reisz (1986) (reference only)



Reptilia, Family Captorhinidae (Devlin)

Dodick and Modesto (1995); Mčller and Reisz (2006); Sumida et al. (2010)



Protorothyrididiae + Araeoscelidia (Skates)

Reisz (1981); Reisz et al. (1984);  Mčller and Reisz (2006)



Dr. Sumida away from campus.

No class meeting



Mesosauridae + Millerettidae + Lanthanosuchidae (Bradley and Yang)

Modesto (2006); Modesto (2010); deBraga and Reisz (1996); Cisneros et al. (2008)



Bolosauridae + Nyctiphruretus (Davis)

Berman et al. (2000); Reisz et al. (2007); Falconnet (2012)



Procolophonoidea (Salgado and Felbinger)

Diaz deSilva et al. (2006); Cisneros (2008); Cisneros and Ruta (2010)



Pareiasauromorpha (Campos and Patton)

Tsuji (2006); Tsuji et al. (2012)



Final project due 12:00 Thursday 3/20.




Weekly Lecture Documents and Downloads


Week 1:  Introduction, Definition of Amniota, Diadectomorpha

            Week 1 Lecture Notes

            Week 1 Powerpoint


Week 2:  Defiition of Synapsida, Basal SynapsidaCaseosauria

            Week 2 Lecture Notes

            Week 2 Powerpoint


Week3:  SynapsidaEupelycosauria

            Week 3 Lecture Notes

            Week 3 Powerpoint


Week 4:  Basal RepiliaCaptorhinidae

            Week 4 Lecture Notes

            Week 4 Powerpoint


Week 5: More derived Basal RepiliaProtorothyrididae and Basal Diapsids

            Week 5 Lecture Notes

            Week 5 Powerpoint


Week 7:  Basal Parareptilia: Mesosauridae, Millerettidae, Lanthanosuchidae

            Week 7 Lecture Notes

            Week 7 Powerpoint


Week 8:  Bolosauridae, Nyctiphruretus

            Week 8 Lecture Notes

            Week 8 Powerpoint


Week 9:  Procolophonoidea

            Week 9 Lecture Notes

            Week 9 Powerpoint


Week 10:  Pareiasauromorpha

            Week 10 Lecture Notes

            Week 10 Powerpoint


Course Reading Assignments


Berman, D. S, S. S. Sumida, and R. E. Lombard. 1992. Reinterpretation of the sutural patterns in Diadectes and the interrelationships of the Diadectomorpha. Journal of Paleontology, 66:481-499.  [PDF]


Berman, D. S, R. R. Reisz, J. R. Bolt, and D. Scott.  1995.  The cranial anatomy and relationships of the synapsid Varanosaurus (Eupelycosauria: Ophiacodontidae) from the Early Permian of Texas and Oklahoma.  Annals of Carnegie Museum, 64:99-133. [PDF]


Berman, D. S, R. R. Reisz, D. Scott, A. C. Henrici, S. S. Sumida, and T. Martens.  2000.  Early Permian bipedal reptile.  Science, 290:969-972.  [PDF]


Cisneros, J. C.  2008.  Phylogenetic relationships of procolophonid parareptiles with remarks on their geological record.  Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 6:345-366.  [PDF]


Cisneros, J. C. and M. Ruta, 2010.  Morphological diversity and biogeography of procolophonids (Amniota: Parareptilia).  Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8:607-625.  [PDF]


Cisneros, J.C., B. S. Rubidge, R. Mason, and C. Dube.  2008. Analysis of millerettid parareptile relationships in the light of new material of Broomia perplexa Watson, 1914, from the Permian of South Africa.  Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 6:453–462.  [PDF]


deBraga, M. and R. R. Reisz. 1996: The Early Permian reptile Acleistorhinus pteroticus and its phylogenetic position. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16:384-395.  [PDF]


Dias-da-Silva, S., S. P.  Modesto, and C. L. Schultz.  2006. New material of Procolophon (Parareptilia: Procolophonoidea) from the Lower Triassic of Brazil, with remarks on the ages of the Sanga do Cabral and Buena Vista formations of South America.  Canadian Journal of Earth Science, 43:1685-1693.  [PDF]


Falconnet, J.  2012.  First evidence of a bolosaurid parareptile in France (latest Carboniferous-earliest Permian of the Autun basin) and the spatiotemporal distribution of the Bolosauridae.  Bulletin SocietÄ GÄological France, 183:495-608.  [PDF]


Maddin, H. C., C. A. Sicdor, and R. R. Reisz.  2008.  Cranial anatomy of Ennatosaurus tecton (Syynapsida: Caseidae) from the Middle Permian of Russia and the evolutionary relationships of Caseidae.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 28:160-180.  [PDF]


Modesto, S. P. 2006.  The cranial skeleton of the Early Permian aquatic reptile Mesosaurus tenuidens: implications for relationships and palaeobiology.  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 146:345–368.  [PDF]


Modesto, S. P. 2010.  The postcranial skeleton of the aquatic parareptile Mesosaurus tenuidens from the Gondwanan Permian.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30:1378-1390.  [PDF]


Modesto, S. P., D. M. Scott, D. S Berman, J. Mčller, and R. R. Reisz.  2007.The skull and the palaeoecological significance of Labidosaurus hamatus, a captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian of Texas.  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 149:237–262.  [PDF]


Mčller, J., Li, J.-L.,and R. R. Reisz.  2007. A new bolosaurid parareptile, Belebey chengi sp. nov., from the Middle Permian of China and its paleogeographic significance.  Naturwissenschaften, 95:11691174.  [PDF]


Mčller, J., and R. R. Reisz.  2006.  The phylogeny of early eureptiles: comparing parsimony and Baysian appreoaches in the investigation of a basal fossil clade.  Systematic Biology, 55:503-511. [PDF]


Reisz, R. R. 1980.  A diapsid reptile from the Pennsylvanian of Kansas. University of Kansas Museum of natural history Special Publication No. 7. 74pp.  [PDF]


Reisz, R. R. , D. S Berman, and D. Scott.  1984.  The anatomy and relationships of the Lower Permian reptile Araeoscelis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 4:57-67.  [PDF]


Reisz, R. R. , D. S Berman, and D. Scott.  1992.  The cranial anatomy and relationships of Secodontosaurus, an unusual mammal-like reptile (Synapsida: Sphenacodontidae) from the early Permian of Texas.  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104:127–184.  [PDF]


Reisz, R. R., J. Mčller, L. Tsuji, and D. Scott.  2007. The cranial osteology of Belebey vegrandis (Parareptilia: Bolosauridae), from the Middle Permian of Russia, and its bearing on reptilian evolution.  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 151:191–214.  [PDF]


Reisz, R. R., S. J. Godfrey, and D. Scott.  2009.  Eothyris and Oedaleops: Do These Early Permian Synapsids from Texas and New Mexico form a Clade?  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 29:39-47.  [PDF]


Sumida, S. S., R. E. Lombard, and D. S Berman. 1992. Morphology of the atlas-axis complex of the Late Paleozoic tetrapod suborders Diadectomorpha and Seymouriamorpha. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 336:259-273. [PDF]


Sumida, S. S., J. Dodick, A. Metcalf, and G. Albright.  2010.  Reiszorhinus olsoni, a new single-tooth-rowed captorhinid reptile from the Lower Permian of Texas. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 30:704-714.  [PDF]


Tsuji, L. 2006.  Cranial anatomy and phylogenetic affinities of the Permian parareptile Macroleter poezicus. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 26:849-865.  [PDF]


Tsuji, L., J. Mčller, and R. Reisz.  2012. Anatomy of Emeroleter levis and the phylogeny of the Nycteroleter parareptiles.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 32:45-67.  [PDF]



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